The Grand Piano
The grand piano of today incorporates all the refinements of its predecessors plus additional improvements which have added greatly to its musical range and depth, as well as to its durability and stability. Foremost among these is the use of cross stringing, a means of achieving greater richness of tone by passing more strings over the resonant center of the soundboard. This principle, although invented by Alphaeus Babcock in 1830, was not used in the grand piano until the second half of the 19th century. The introduction of the sostenuto, or middle pedal, in the late 19th century permitted greater scope for musical coloring. Modern technology (new glues, better control of woods, stronger wire, new manufacturing processes, etc.) has enabled the modern piano to become the most used and versatile of all musical instruments.
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