The Beethoven-Period Piano
During the 18th century, piano builders gradually extended the keyboard, using constantly heavier hammers and strings that required increased strengthening of the frame. Two significant new developments were the escapement action for faster repetition of notes (about 1770 by Stein in Augsburg) and the damper and soft pedals (1783 by Broadwood in London). Special pedals were often added to produce exotic effects such as Turkish percussion.
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